8. VOR, LOC, LOC/BC or NDB Instrument Approach


To determine the candidate’s ability to safely fly a successful VOR, LOC, LOC/BC or NDB approach.


After transitioning to the approach facility or after receiving vectors from ATC or the examiner, the candidate will fly the approach depicted on the approach chart to the missed approach point or to a landing. The candidate will control the helicopter solely with reference to flight instruments.

Performance Criteria

Assessment will be based on the candidate’s ability to:

  1. establish two-way communications with ATC using the proper communications phraseology and techniques, as required for the phase of flight or approach segment;
  2. comply in a timely manner, with all clearances, instructions, and procedures issued by ATC and advise accordingly if unable to comply;
  3. select and comply with the VOR, LOC, LOC/BC or NDB instrument approach procedure to be performed;
  4. select, tune, identify, confirm and monitor the operational status of ground and helicopter navigation equipment to be used for the approach procedure;
  5. establish the appropriate configuration (power setting and airspeed) and vary appropriately  considering turbulence, wind shear, microburst conditions or other meteorological and operating conditions;
  6. complete the helicopter check list items appropriate to the phase of flight or approach segment, including engine-out emergency checklist, as applicable;
  7. apply necessary adjustment to the published Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA), as required, because of NOTAMS, inoperative helicopter and/or ground navigation equipment or inoperative visual aids associated with the landing environment;
  8. prior to final approach course, maintain altitudes, as cleared or as declared, (±100 feet) and maintain headings (±10 degrees);
  9. on the intermediate and final segments of the final approach course:
    1. maintain VOR, LOC, LOC/BC tracking within ½ scale deflection of the course deviation within 5 degrees of the specified track in the case of an NDB approach;
    2. fly the approach in a relatively stable manner without descending below the applicable minimum altitudes depicted on the approach chart (+as required/ –0 feet); and
    3. descend to and accurately maintain the Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) and track to the Missed Approach Point (MAP) or to the recommended minimum visibility that would permit safe completion of the visual portion of the approach with a normal rate of descent and non excessive manoeuvring.
  10. maintain declared approach airspeeds (±10 knots); and
  11. initiate the missed approach procedure at the MAP, when the required visual references for the intended runway or heliport are not obtained.
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